Biotic and Abiotic Factors in an Ecosystem

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在生态学中,生物和非生物因素包括生态系统的所有生活和非生活部位。生物因子涉及生物体及其关系。非生物因素是生态系统的非生物组成部分,包括阳光,水,温度,风和营养素。

生物和非生物因子之间的相互作用通过生态系统涟漪。Plants, for example, use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to produce energy and grow, releasing oxygen and — directly or indirectly — serving as a food source for other organisms. When they die, living organisms break back down into abiotic components. Changes in a biotic factor, such as a species population increase, or an abiotic factor, such as a decrease in precipitation, can therefore affect the entire ecosystem.

Ecologists use biotic and abiotic factors to预测人口变化和生态事件。经过investigating how these factors interact, ecologists can gauge what is happening in an ecosystem over time. Ecologists may conduct population surveys to see whether the number or density of a given species is changing, how quickly it is changing, and why. By understanding the biotic and abiotic factors that impact the species, they can find explanations for population declines or increases. In addition, they may be able to predict ecological events like species die-offs, over-population, changes in growth rates, and disease outbreaks.

生物因素

Biotic factors include interactions between organisms, like disease, predation, parasitism, and competition among species or within a single species. In addition, living organisms themselves are biotic factors. They fall into three main categories: producers, consumers, and decomposers.

  • 生产商:These organisms, which include plants and algae, convert abiotic factors into food. Most producers use the sun’s energy along with water and carbon dioxide in a process called光合作用。This results in energy that producers can feed on. In fact, producers are also called autotrophs, because they feed themselves: In Greek, “auto” means self, and “troph” means feed or nourishment. Autotrophs make use of abiotic factors to produce their own food.
  • 消费者:大多数消费者都是动物,他们没有自己的食物。相反,他们消耗生产者或其他消费者获得食物能源。这就是为什么消费者也被称为杂曲面:“异质”意味着不同或其他,因为它们从自己以外的物种中获得了它们的营养。消费者可以是食草动物,食肉动物或遗迹。食草动物饲养生产者;它们包括像马,大象和海牛等动物。食肉动物饲养其他消费者。它们包括狮子,狼和orcas。杂粮,如鸟类,熊和龙虾,喂养生产者和消费者。
  • Decomposers:这些是从死植物和动物中分解有机物的生物,进入无机组分,如碳和氮,这是必要的终身。然后,无机物质返回土壤和水作为生产者可以重新使用的营养素,继续循环。分解者也被称为嗜胞萎缩:从希腊语“Saprós”或腐烂,因为他们喂食有机物。分解器的实例包括细菌,真菌,蚯蚓和一些昆虫。

非生物因素

Abiotic factors are the non-living components of the ecosystem, including its chemical and physical factors. Abiotic factors influence other abiotic factors. In addition, they have profound impacts on the variety and abundance of life in an ecosystem, whether on land or in water. Without abiotic factors, living organisms wouldn’t be able to eat, grow, and reproduce. Below is a list of some of the most significant abiotic factors.

  • 阳光:作为世界上最大的能源来源,阳光在大多数生态系统中发挥着重要作用。它提供了植物用来生产食物的能量,而且它会影响温度。有机体必须根据他们有多少阳光来调整。
  • 氧:氧气对地球上大多数生命形式至关重要。原因?他们需要氧气以呼吸并从食物中释放能量。通过这种方式,oxygen drives the metabolismof most organisms.
  • 温度:空气和水中的温度平均温度,温度范围和极值都在生物体如何在生态系统中生活和生存。温度也会影响有机体的新陈代谢和物种已经进化到了生态系统中的典型温度范围内茁壮成长
  • Wind:Wind can exert many effects on an ecosystem. It moves other abiotic factors, like soil and water. It disperses seeds and spreads fire. Wind affects temperature as well as evaporation from soil, air, surface waters, and plants, changing humidity levels.
  • 水:水对所有生命至关重要。在陆地(土地)生态系统中,水稀缺,如沙漠,有机体开发特征和行为,帮助他们通过有效收获和储存水来存活。这有时可以创建一个water source for other species也是。在像雨林等生态系统中丰富的水耗尽土壤营养素,许多植物具有特殊的特征,让它们在水中洗脱之前收集营养。水还含有水生和海洋物种依赖的营养,气体和食物来源,并且它促进了运动和其他寿命功能。
  • 洋流:海洋电流涉及水的运动,这反过来促进生物和非生物因素等生物和营养素的运动。电流也影响水温和气候。它们在生活在水中的生物的生存和行为中发挥着重要作用,因为电流可以影响食物可用性,繁殖和物种迁移等物种。
  • 营养素:Soil and water contain生物需要吃和生长的无机营养素。For example, minerals like phosphorous, potassium, and nitrogen found in soil are important for plant growth. Water contains many dissolved nutrients, and soil runoff can carry nutrients to aquatic and marine environments.

土壤怎么样?

由...组成的生物和非生物组分,土壤是一个有趣的案例。土壤过滤器并储存水并锚固植物的根源。它含有营养矿物质和气体,以及数百万微生物,如细菌,真菌和单细胞生物,称为archaea。这些是重要的分解者,地球的不可或缺的回收商。

The Relationship Between Biotic and Abiotic Factors

生物和非生物因素都可以影响和限制物种的人口。抑制人口增长等生态系统的生态系统中的因素被称为限制因素

Consider the difference between life in ocean surface waters and a deep ocean ecosystem13,000英尺以下。在海洋表面附近,叫浮游植物的微小植物将充足的阳光转化为能量。浮游植物形成众多其他物种的巨大食物网依赖于,从海豚和鱼类到组成珊瑚礁的各种生物。水域附近有温暖,还有更多的氧气。这些非生物因素的阳光,氧气和温度等,其中影响了整个生态系统中生物的特征和行为。

相比之下,没有阳光渗透深度ocean waters; the only light is produced by the creatures that live there. At these depths, organisms must be adapted to extreme pressure, which is more than 100 times greater than surface waters. Life here must withstand temperatures close to freezing. There is less food and less oxygen, which requires slower metabolisms. In this ecosystem, the low levels of light, oxygen, and food, along with cold water temperatures, are limiting factors that constrain the organisms that live here.

无论是对生态系统中的生活方式和丰富的生命影响,无论是在水中还是在土地上都会影响非生物因素。但它的方式都有:生物因素也可以改变非生物因素。海洋中的所有浮游植物都会产生丰富的氧气。较大的植物,如海带森林,过滤阳光,凉爽水域,并影响海洋电流。

On land, too, biotic factors trigger changes that can move through an ecosystem. For example, a study in Yellowstone National Park found that during the decades in which grey wolves were absent from the park, elk didn’t move around as much because they had fewer predators. Instead, elk browsed on woody plants and shrubs near streams, reducing the number and size of willow trees along stream banks. Fewer willows meant less food for beavers, whose population then declined. Fewer beavers meant fewer beaver dams, which in turn decreased marshy habitat for willows and the other species they supported.

The reintroduction of wolves in 1995 was a turning point. It triggered a possible营养级联,一个发生变化的事件食物网改变生态系统的结构。在这种情况下,狼限制了麋鹿的人口和行为,因此改善了其他生物的生存机动。麋鹿停止了尽可能多的时间悬挂在溪流周围。柳树和海狸人口开始恢复,海狸建造了更多的水坝。这改变了溪流的过程,恢复湿地。狼的重新引入是麋鹿上的限制因素。结果,其他生物社区部分地反弹,部分原因是狼间接影响重要的非生物因素:水。

生态学家还研究生物和非生物因素之间的关系,以便对生物群体预测进行预测。了解黄石中的狼重新引入如何影响其他因素,研究人员可以预测对狼群的未来变化可能会影响生态系统。

研究这些关系也可用于控制侵入物种。最近的另一个研究调查了哪种生物和非生物因素大多数影响野生猪,这是五大洲目前的侵袭性哺乳动物。

研究人员使用产生关于野猪的相互作用的模型与水可用性,温度,植物生产力,捕食,捕食和人为造成的土地利用变化的影响。识别与人口密度最密切相关的因素是在管理这种侵入物种的过程中。使用此类方法,生态学家可以设计保护生态系统生物多样性的方法。

外带

  • 生物和非生物因素是生态系统的所有生活和非生物组成部分。
  • 生物因子不仅包括生物,而且有机体之间的相互作用,例如捕食,寄生和竞争。
  • 非生物因素包括非活生生物,以及化学和物理因素,以茁壮成长。
  • 当生态系统中的非生物或生物条件限制人群的生长或大小时,它被称为a限制因素
  • Ecologists study relationships between biotic and abiotic factors to predict population changes and ecological events.
查看文章来源
  1. Beyer, Hawthorne L. et al. "柳树北部范围:营养级联的证据?生态应用,卷。17,不。6,2007,第1563-1571页。,DOI:10.1890 / 06-1254.1

  2. Lewis,Jesse S.等。“预测全球分布和侵袭性大型哺乳动物的全球分布和人口密度的生物和非生物因素。“科学报告,卷。7,不。1,2017,DOI:10.1038 / SREP44152