详尽的新研究看着厨房排气和家用空气质量

cc by 2.0。Eggs via Wikipedia

Designing kitchen ventilation that works in really tight houses seems almost impossible.

厨房排气对人们对节能家园感兴趣的重要组成;设计师难以密封的封闭,紧紧控制通风,然后通过打开厨房的排气扇来弄乱整个平衡。他们往往没有正确尺寸,或者无用地悬挂在岛上或离炉子太远。我叫他们最拧紧,设计的严重设计,在您家中使用不适当的设备。

That's why, in Passivhaus designs, where every cubic foot of air is accounted for, designers often use recirculating fans to remove the grease, and depend on the heat recovery ventilator to change the air. But this has been controversial too, as I noted inShould your kitchen have a recirculating or a direct-exhaust hood? I am exhausted just thinking about it.

However, it appears that we now have a definitive answer, in the form of new research from Shelly L. Miller and Ryan E. Militello-Hourigan from the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder. They tested indoor air quality of nine tightly constructed homes, a library and a conventionally built home, seven of which were certified Passivhaus or PHIUS, and published their results asThe impacts of cooking and an assessment of indoor air quality in Colorado passive and tightly constructed homes.

The researchers brought their own induction hot plate and frying pan and overcooked a large Grade AA egg for six minutes. (Sorry about the "this is your brain on..."intro) "It should be noted that is a long time to cook a fried egg, and the emissions from this activity are likely higher than a normal fried egg. The goal was to produce substantial emissions that are within the range of normal cooking."

然后它们测试了细颗粒物质(PM2.5,杀死肺部的杀伤小颗粒)挥发性有机化合物(VOC),甲醛,二氧化碳和氡。每个家庭都经过两次测试,随着助推器风扇运行。

图1.在每个通风模式下烹饪后的短期(20或30分钟)PM2.5平均浓度。

© Fig. 1. Short-term (20 or 30 min) PM2.5 average concentration after cooking for under each ventilation modes.

结果是令人震惊的。关于PM2.5:

测试的被动或紧的家庭没有任何被动或紧张的房屋的舷窗直接排出到户外,而是依赖于厨房区域的呼吸机排气烤架以去除污染物。这项策略一般没有证明是有效的。来自烹饪的颗粒排放不知所措地移除并蔓延到房屋的其余部分。浓度在正常通风和升压条件下仍保持高几个小时。
烹饪测试后,每个建筑物超过NAAQS 24-HR限制的小时数。

© Fig. 2 Number of hours each building exceeded NAAQS 24-hr limit after cooking test.

如图1所示。如图2所示,在烹饪后,一个家庭经历的浓度高于35μg/ m3以上近10小时。人们希望居民能够注意到空气质量减弱,并打开一个窗户来增加通风率,但这可能不是现实的或可行的。在冬季,寒冷的温度可能会阻止居民做到这一点。如果像这样的烹饪活动是经常发生的,那么重复接触高PM2.5可能存在潜在的健康风险。

从房子漏水的传统是结果in fact the best, probably due to the higher infiltration rate of outside air.

总体总体遍布地图,但正在推动可接受的浓度。甲醛高于预期,“所有建筑物都高于加州环境卫生危害评估(OEHHA)慢性限值为9μg/ m3。”二氧化碳水平也足够高,以至于它们可能对认知功能产生重大影响。“七个超出了建议的限制。Radon超过了四个家庭中的EPA可操作限制。

The researchers conclude:

The passive house concept can be an effective design approach to reduce energy use and improve thermal comfort, but it should not be assumed that this type of building has inherently good indoor air quality. Severe, but not atypical, cooking events drastically reduced the indoor air quality for many hours, and the temporary boost mode that many of the mechanical ventilators feature was ineffective at reducing PM emissions from the cooking activities. ...
通常,这些房屋的室内空气质量是可以接受的,但卧室通风的增加对于考虑很重要,并且强烈推荐用于频繁炊具的直接排出的罩,因为这些罩在减少细颗粒物质浓度方面非常有效。

那么我们可以从中汲取哪些结论?

  • Install a fan that exhausts to the exterior. Period. AsProfessor John Straube put it once: "Recirculating range hoods don't solve the IAQ problem. It's like a recirculating toilet. The stuff just goes round and round and never leaves."

I also made some other suggestions after reading earlier research:

  • Just stop putting gas into homes; induction cooktops work really well now.
  • 把范围放在墙上。这是一个禁智的人,但不会阻止人们在岛上的大范围内把小帽子放在大范围内。
  • Engineer Robert Bean recommends that it be wider than the range, not more than 30 inches from the top, and against a wall. Oh, and the duct runs should be short and straight.
glass kitchen

阿里巴巴/玻璃厨房/通孔

我也会再次说出来:开放式厨房是个坏主意。在中国,他们做了很多闪光煎炸,产生了很多VOC和微粒,但想要一个开放式厨房的外观,它们经常将其封闭在玻璃杯中。如果我们关心我们正在呼吸,我们将要开始思考。

stove in sears home

Kitchen stove in Sears Catalog Home built on Sanibel Island, Florida / Lloyd Alter/cc by 2.0

如果您在一百年前购买了一个Sears Home Kit,他们常常在房子的背面陷入困境的厨房范围。这有很多好处;他们可以避免通过在任何一侧打开通风,避免加热整个房子(这一个是佛罗里达州的Sanibel岛上)。如果火灾发生火,那么燃烧整个房子的可能性就不那么脆弱。也许我们必须开始考虑将我们的厨房范围放在烹饪摊位或利基。

Or perhaps we should just order in; this is all so difficult.