9块世界著名的岩石

俄勒冈州海滩边的干草堆岩石

舞池/百叶窗

We have a thing for strange, beautiful, photogenic, and one-of-a-kind rock formations. Each astounding in their own right, these Mother Nature-crafted wonders, many of them showcased within national or state parks, never fail to thrill and prompt the question: "How in the world did那个happen?"

还有一些岩石属于一个完全不同的联盟-奇异的石头和石板,超越冷静地看待地位和吹嘘显着的文化或历史意义。巨大的,中等大小的,偶尔很小的,这些岩石被崇拜,尊敬,并改变了历史的进程;岩石被亲吻,绑架和登陆;岩石装备有自己的神话和神秘;岩石高于平均Yelp收视率和著名的好莱坞血统;几乎不需要解释的岩石。

These, folks, are the rock stars of the geologic world.

着眼于历史的重要性和流行文化的威力,我们从世界各地搜集了9块世界上最具代表性的岩石、石头和巨石。现在让我们开始摇滚吧,好吗?

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乌鲁鲁

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Photo:真人真人真人真人真人真人真人/flickr公司

澳大利亚最著名的自然地标之一是一块巨大的砂岩巨石,从技术上讲是英塞尔伯格(inselberg)或“岛山”(island mountain),它从广袤的沙漠平原上拔地而起,就像澳大利亚内陆中部的一个小疙瘩。

除了皮肤比较,艾尔斯巨石or Uluru — dually named in 1985 to honor of mid-19th century South Australian legislator Sir Henry Ayers while also rightfully preserving its official Aboriginal name — is often heralded as Australia's spiritual heart. Listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Aussie's top rock is a powerful and mysterious place, considered by many to be sacred. And like other sacred places that, for better or worse, double as tourist magnets, Uluru isn't devoid of culturally insensitive activities including one that thousands of thrill-seeking visitors partake in despite pleas not to. The climbing — or, preferably, not climbing — of Uluru is a complex and contentious issue. Seemingly everyone does it — for many, mounting the 700 million-year-old monolith is这个理由参观Uluru Kata Tjuta国家公园— yet the Anangu people have made it clear that they prefer visitors to stay off the designated climbing path for a variety of reasons, both spiritual and practical.

大多数情况下,阿南古人作为土地的守护者,不希望游客在艰难跋涉到山顶时受伤或死亡。”当一个人在我们的土地上死去或受伤时,我们会感到非常悲伤。我们担心你,也担心你的家人,”乌鲁鲁的请勿攀爬标志上写着。尽管澳大利亚法律没有禁止游客攀岩,但尊重土著信仰是阻止许多想成为攀岩者的原因。像北领地首席部长亚当·贾尔斯这样的支持攀岩运动的支持者对此展开了激烈的辩论arguing that banning people from scrambling up the side of Uhuru would harm the local economy

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Blarney Stone

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Photo:David Kinney/flickr公司

可以说,布拉尼城堡的名义上的石头是地球上最亲密的石炭纪石灰岩板,比传说中的唐璜本人知道更多皱巴巴的嘴唇。

As those who have made the pilgrimage to County Cork, Ireland's most unhygienic tourist attraction could tell you,在布拉尼石上放一个湿漉漉的吻并不是最随意的仪式性接吻. 事实上,这相当复杂。你看,布拉尼石被安放在中世纪城堡的石柱上,为了完成这项任务——据信这项任务赋予了接吻者口才的天赋——你必须登上城堡的倾斜顶端,穿过一条不稳定的女儿墙走道,然后仰面躺在指定地点。从那里,唇对石接触只能靠向后倾斜在一个绝对下降,而挂在一对熟铁安全杆上的宝贵生命。这几乎和从一个小妖精手里抢一罐金子一样复杂,但不完全是。

至于布拉尼石的细菌满天飞的声誉,城堡主人查尔斯科尔瑟斯特爵士认为这是废话。他told the Irish Times in 2010: "To my knowledge no one has ever caught anything from kissing the stone. I had an esteemed expert clarify that you cannot catch any disease from kissing the stone." Great to know! However, it's still advisable to bring a packet of sanitizing wipes along with those sensible walking shoes.

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干草堆石

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Photo:朱诺/flickr公司

在俄勒冈州风景如画的崎岖海岸之外,你不会真正隐藏起来,你会发现美国最上镜的海洋堆积物——也就是由熔岩形成的巨大地质体,经过数千年的风浪侵蚀而形成。

坎农海滩(Cannon Beach)是一个吸引游客的标志性地标,其中最高的一个(统称为“针”)高达235英尺,是雄伟的整体式干草堆岩石。别跟俄勒冈州的混淆了other大炮海滩海岸沿海沿岸的海水岩石山区,大炮海滩的干草堆摇滚最为闻名于其好莱坞幽灵(“Goonies”,“1941”和“幼儿园警察”只是为了评名为几个)和公众访问。在低潮期间,游客可以乘坐脚踏,探索其潮汐池,这些潮水池是用海星,螃蟹和万花筒品种的跨境的潮气般的生物,海粘土层和银莲花属。各种筑巢海鸟,包括簇绒的海鹦,也以季节性的方式致电Haystack Rock Home。

This all said, with such easy accessibility comes responsibility. As a state-protected marine garden and a national wildlife refuge, Haystack Rock is very much a "look but don't touch" type of place with established protocol that prohibits poking, prodding and prying. Climbing the rock itself is also forbidden and so is leaving with a bucket filled with "souvenirs."

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Plymouth Rock

照片:苏晨/Shutterstock

有人可能会认为,美国历史上最常被引用的岩石是不朽的,不可能错过的-一个海角或海角巨石,作为一种科德角的表亲俄勒冈州的干草堆岩石。

然而,“不朽的”和“不可能错过的”不能用来形容普利茅斯岩石,一块花岗闪长岩巨石,据信是1620年五月花号的绿脸乘客第一次踏上还没有美国国土的地方。现在位于马萨诸塞州最小的州立公园的一个封闭的围墙内,很难相信任何东西可以降落在这件令人不安的历史文物上更不用说一艘满载120名英国分离主义者的商船了。说句公道话,普利茅斯岩,在他们到达后100多年才被提及为朝圣者的登陆点,在过去的时间里,它的规模更令人印象深刻。1774年,原石在搬迁过程中被劈成两半。哎呀。

从那时起,这块石头——或者至少是它的上半部分——的大小逐渐缩小,因为它在镇上到处游荡,各种各样的场地都有纪念品猎人在每个机会凿掉不那么小的一块。1880年,普利茅斯岩石的两个分开的长半部终于重聚在一起,并用水泥粘合在一起。就在那时,“1620”的日期被刻进了那块被时间击碎的巨石上。在1921年,普利茅斯岩石,有点,但不是真正完整的估计三分之一或一半的原始大小,被重新安置到它现在的,门廊保护的家园在普利茅斯港,它一直在收集的反应“等待。。。就这样?”从那以后。

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直布罗陀岩石

照片:奥恩西亚尤利安/Shutterstock

As the old saying goes, the defining geological feature of the diminutive sovereign British territory of the same name, the Rock of Gibraltar — or simply, the Rock — is indeed solid. And dramatic, breathtaking, history-shaping and到处都是淘气的猴子

About those monkeys. Located in the southernmost reaches of the Iberian Peninsula, Gibraltar's unique, continent-straddling locale — only a narrow strait separates the peninsular territory from Morocco — means that it's home to some unique fauna including, most famously, a colony of 150 or so Barbary macaques. The colony of so-called rock apes, which can mostly be found on the nature reserve-designated upper reaches of the rock itself, is the only population of wild primates on the European continent. Descended from North African Barbary macaques, Gibraltar's Barbary macaques have taken up residence on the rock — the rock, by the way, is a monolithic limestone promontory with an elevation of 1,398 feet — since, well, pretty much forever ... at least long before Gibraltar first came under British control in 1704. Legend has it that if the macaques ever decamp from the rock, than Gibraltar will cease to be British.

This being said, the Gibraltar Ornithological and Natural History Society takes great care to ensure that the microchip-embedded monkeys are healthy, happy and well fed. Tourists also supply the pilferage-prone macaques with a steady supply of treats, sometimes inadvertently since the emboldened monkeys are noted for periodically snatching purses and backpacks in search of a quick nibble. The practice of purposely feeding the cheeky little buggers, however, is punishable by law. In recent years,不断制造麻烦的人已被驱逐出直布罗陀-是猴子,不是游客。

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罗塞塔石

Photo: Hulton Archive/Getty Images

三个脚本,两种语言,一个谜团解锁黑色granodiorite板。现在在很大程度上在成语或参考品牌的互动语言学习软件,往往很容易忘记一个真实的罗塞塔石非常存在。

当然,除非你在大英博物馆与人群搏斗过,因为根据亚历山大条约,这件珍贵的文物(一块古埃及提取的石碑)第一次从法国手中(1799年拿破仑的军队在罗塞塔市附近出土)移走后,一直是最吸引人的1802熟悉罗塞塔石碑的人都很清楚,它惊天动地的重要性并不源于它上面所刻文字的内容。相反,它是how这个text, a King Ptolemy V-praising decree issued by a council of high priests in 196 B.C., is inscribed that changed history forever. Given that the stone is inscribed with three parallel texts, Greek (governmental), Egyptian Demotic (common) and Egyptian hieroglyphics (sacred), linguists and scholars with a firm knowledge of ancient Greek were at long last able to crack the proverbial code and gain a greater understanding of the eternally baffling Egyptian picture writing system known as hieroglyphics.

While the Rosetta Stone was discovered — and ultimately deciphered — by the French and has been housed in London for the past two centuries, some would argue that this celebrated granite slab qualifies as stolen goods and belongs back in the country where it was plundered from hundreds of years ago.Said Zahi Hawass, a controversial Egyptian archaeologist领导将世界各地博物馆持有的罗塞塔石碑和其他埃及古物移交开罗博物馆的负责人说:“如果英国人想被记住,如果他们想恢复自己的声誉,他们应该自愿归还罗塞塔石碑,因为它是我们埃及身份的象征。”

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Stonehenge

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Photo:内洛霍特苏马/flickr公司

当然,英格兰最神秘的史前遗迹并不像其他参赛者那样是一块奇石、巨石或超大的岩层。但是拜托,你怎么能把巨石阵从举世闻名的岩石庆典中忽略掉呢?

True, the巨石阵的确切起源和用途仍然是生命中的一大谜团。(天文台?墓地?Neolithic health spa? Alien spacecraft landing pad?) But over the years, determined geologists have been able to pinpoint the source of the stones themselves. However, how these stones wound up at the monument site on the Salisbury Plain is a whole other story. In 2011, following extensive petrographic analysis that took into consideration both the mineral content and the textural relationship between rocks, British geologists concluded that the hefty dolerites, or bluestones, that compose Stonehenge's inner circle were transported, for reasons and by methods unknown, 160 miles away from Craig Rhos-y-felin, a megalith quarry in Pembrokeshire, Wales. "Being able to provenance any archaeologically significant rock so precisely is remarkable,"Rob Ixer of Leicester University explained to the BBC在令人惊讶的发现之后。”然而,鉴于坚持不懈的努力,我们决心要揭开巨石阵青石的大部分(如果不是全部的话)起源,这样考古学家就可以继续他们的推测,一直持续到第三世纪。”

As for the hulking pillars that form the iconic outer ring and inner horseshoe formation at Stonehenge, these are known as sarsens, a type of sandstone block weighing as much as 50 metric tons. The sarsens are widely believed to have made a far less arduous journey than the bluestones, having been hauled by the site's mysterious builders from Marlborough Downs, just 20 miles north of the roughly 5,000-year-old site.

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石山

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Photo:Katie/flickr公司

Located just a quick drive outside of Atlanta's city limits, Stone Mountain is a curious quartz monzonite formation that sticks out like the South's most prominent sore thumb.

Billed as the world's largest exposed granite monolith — like Australia's Ulruru, the colossal rock is technically a monadnock or inselberg — Stone Mountain is renowned for both its unique geology and the fact that the world's largest bas-relief sculpture can be found on its north face. Dubbed the Confederate Memorial Carving, this 3-acre, decades-in-the-making relief was started but subsequently abandoned by Gutzon Borglum of Mount Rushmore fame and depicts the horse-bound figures of Confederate leaders Jefferson Davis, Stonewall Jackson and Robert E. Lee. Given the massive relief is a tribute to the Confederacy and the fact that Stone Mountain itself possesses strongly disagreeable chapters in its own more modern history, this broadcast tower-topped monolith has served as a controversy magnet when not serving as a family-friendly tourist destination. Today, the 825-foot-tall rock is the3,200英亩的国有公园的核心拥有里程的自然小径,眩晕的缆车骑,生活历史博物馆等。

2015年10月,石山纪念协会提议为石山加冕。马丁·路德·金(Martin Luther King Jr.)——纪念被称为“自由钟”(Freedom Bell)的自由钟复制品。金在其具有里程碑意义的1963年“我有一个梦想”(I Have a Dream)演讲中引用了石山,这一说法很尖锐,因为这座巨石虽然最近被国家收购,但仍在很大程度上与其之前的三K党支持的所有者有关。得到内森州长的支持,这项建议遭到强烈反对from Confederate heritage-minded preservationists as well as from civil rights groups that would rather just see the likenesses of Davis, Jackson and Lee sandblasted off the face of Stone Mountain once and for all.

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Stone of Scone

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Photo:sobolevnrm/flickr公司

你可能有过这样的不幸,咬到了一个像石头一样硬的烤饼。但是提到苏格兰的“石头”和“烤饼”这两个词,你会想到的不仅仅是一块削牙饼干。

一块不那么普通的长方形红砂岩板重336磅,烤饼之石-又名命运之石-一直受到神秘,阴谋和一个国家的愤怒1950年抢劫。虽然烤饼石的起源是一个谜,但众所周知,这块石头在9世纪开始的苏格兰君主加冕礼中扮演了不可或缺的角色。1296年,英国国王爱德华一世(King Edward I)强行占有了这件备受尊崇的遗物,作为今天珀斯郡斯科恩修道院(Scone Abbey)的战利品,还是在他入侵前精心设计的复制品?爱德华国王迁往威斯敏斯特大教堂,为加冕石——或者加冕克隆人——配备了装备?-与他同名的木制王座专门用于加冕仪式,最近的是伊丽莎白女王二世。

The Stone of Scone remained at Westminster Abbey until Christmas 1950 when a quartet of Scottish students made off with the relic during the middle of the night. While liberating the coveted hunk o' sandstone from King Edward's Chair, the nationalistic bandits dropped the stone, breaking it into two chunks. When daylight broke and authorities realized the Stone of Scone had been pilfered during a daring heist, the borders between Scotland and England were closed for the first time in over 400 years. The broken stone was eventually ditched and buried in a field in rural England by the students only to be unearthed, mended back together and returned to Westminster Abbey several months later. (还是真的another复制?). 1996年,英国政府将烤饼石或其他东西归还给苏格兰,以防万一。嗯,有点。这个爱丁堡城堡展出的石头遗迹but will return to London when new monarchs are crowned.