10.Great Escapes

MGM Studios.

Whether it's Steve McQueen tunneling out of a POW camp or 33 Chilean miners enduring two months in a collapsed mine, there's something that fascinates and inspires us about unlikely escapes. Seeing other people beat the odds boosts our faith in the human spirit, not to mention ingenuity, and gives us hope we could persevere if ever faced with a similar plight.

以下10个生存故事表明,文明郊区的郊区可以冒险 - 从外太空到南极到英里深入的矿山 - 以及运气难以忽视的糟糕。但他们也说明了更重要的事情:人们不仅会逃离死亡的颌骨,而且还要拯救其他人。

(Text by Laura Moss, Russell McLendon, Noel Kirkpatrick and Benyamin Cohen)


Chile's trapped miners

Chile's Presidency/AP.

On Aug. 5, 2010, a copper and gold mine in Chile caved in, trapping 33 miners 2,300 feet underground. Rescue workers descended into the mine two days later, but were forced to abandon their route when a fresh cave-in blocked the duct, so they began drilling holes in an attempt to locate the miners. Seventeen days later they were rewarded with tapping noises and a note tied to the drill that read, "The 33 of us in the shelter are well."

Realizing the miners could be trapped until Christmas, Chile asked NASA for advice, and a strict schedule of exercise, nutrition and entertainment was developed to prepare the miners mentally and physically for the months ahead. Known in Chile as "Los 33," the miners ate 2,220 calories a day, but also exercised to stay slim enough to fit through the rescue hole. While they watched 13 hours of television a day, they were denied handheld video games and personal music players to avoid isolation.

工人完成钻井逃生轴10月9日,and after reinforcing it with metal, a capsule named "Phoenix" was lowered inside on the night of Oct. 12. It resurfaced just after midnight with 31-year-old Florencio Avalos, the first miner out, to a raucous welcome from family, rescuers and supporters. The process continued with no major problems past sunrise and throughout the day, as miners were pulled up one by one, each greeted by an eruption of cheers. Shift foreman Luis Urzúa, 54, who was credited with keeping the miners alive those first few weeks before they were found, was the 33rd and final one rescued at about 10 p.m. on Oct. 13. "We've done a good job," he said in Spanish after stepping out of the Phoenix. "Seventy days of the fight were worth it. We had the guts to fight."


Apollo 13


Dramatized in the 1995 Tom Hanks movie, this lunar mission found astronauts Jim Lovell, Fred Haise and Jack Swigert stranded in space during a moon mission in the spring of 1970. An explosion caused a loss of electricity to the command module of the spacecraft, forcing the astronauts to use the lunar module as a floating "lifeboat." (The damage gave birth to the pop-culture phrase: "Houston, we have a problem.")

The drama captivated the nation as reports came back to Earth that the lifeboat, built for two men with only two days' worth of air, would now have to be the home of three men for four days. With NASA engineers providing out-of-the-box ideas, the astronauts were able to jury-rig a solution using a plastic bags, cardboard, tape, and an old sock. This MacGyver-like solution enabled the astronauts — cold, tired, and hungry — to return safely back home. The mission was dubbed a "successful failure."



Eric Gay/AP.

On Oct. 14, 1987, 18-month-old Jessica McClure fell down a narrow well in her aunt's backyard in Midland, Texas, where she was trapped for nearly three days.

在最初的几个小时内,救援人员试图在婴儿杰西卡获得视觉上,最后将摄像机降低到22英尺处,以确认她的存在。随着救援人员赶紧带来反向鞋和钻井设备来拯救令人恐惧的小孩,围栏和晾衣绳被撕裂。警察轮流坐在洞里谈到她,鼓励她唱“Winnie The Pooh”,58小时后,已经钻了一个平行的轴,并从洞里抬起一个纱布覆盖的孩子。

Baby Jessica的救援抓住了世界 - 观众被粘在全国各地的电视和人们淋浴麦克里斯家族与泰迪熊,卡片和礼品。自救援以来,24岁的人有15个手术,现在与一个儿子结婚,很快就会获得价值超过100万美元的信托基金,在为期三天的考验期间祝福在她的名字中捐赠的钱。


Miracle on the Hudson

Steven Day/AP.

U.S. Airways Flight 1549 took off from New York on its way to Charlotte on Jan. 15, 2009, but minutes later the plane struck a flock of Canada geese, disabling both engines. The crew determined that they would be unable to reach any airfield in time, so pilot Chesley "Sully" Sullenberger turned the plane toward the Hudson River.


The entire crew of Flight 1549 was later awarded the Master's Medal of the Guild of Air Pilots and Air Navigators, and today Capt. Sully is widely regarded as a hero.


Essex whaling disaster

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.


But their luck ran out on Nov. 16, 1820, when a sperm whale sank one of the Essex's small whaleboats with its tail. Four days later, another whale smashed into the Essex itself, sinking the ship and forcing its crew into their three remaining whaleboats. They sailed for weeks until spying a desert island on Dec. 20, but quickly realized it was too small to support the entire crew. All but three returned to sea, where several died before the survivors resorted to cannibalism; the final five were eventually rescued in February 1821.

The three who had stayed behind on the rocky outcrop — now known as Henderson Island — lived there for 107 days until they too were rescued in April 1821. The captain's son later recounted his father's ordeal to a young whaler named Herman Melville, inspiring him to write the novel "Moby Dick."




罗纳德世斯基博士是2001年4月南极的Amundsen-Scott Research站(如图50所示)中唯一的医生,所以当他通过胆结石并发生严重的胰腺炎时,每个人都知道这是坏消息 - 特别是自从长期以来南极冬天刚刚开始。

没有人在冬天的冬天飞往南极洲,但担心世士斯基的病情可能会恶化,国家科学基金会决定尝试。它于4月14日送到一个小救援飞机,经过几次天气延误,4月22日终于达到了南极海岸,受到白天黑暗和减去80度的温度的欢迎。The plane then had to wait three more days before flying inland to the research station, where it finally arrived on April 24. Shemenski was flown out the next day, and once back in the U.S., doctors found he had also suffered a heart attack on top of his other ailments. They performed heart surgery on May 3, followed by gall bladder surgery in June, and he eventually made a full recovery.



Wikimedia Commons。

On Oct. 13, 1972, a Uruguayan rugby team and their friends and family boarded Air Force flight 571 in Montevideo, Uruguay, for a match in Santiago, Chile. However, inclement weather caused the pilot to crash in the Andes Mountains the next day, killing 12 of the 45 passengers on impact.


Disaster struck again on Oct. 29 when an avalanche killed eight people who had been sleeping in the fuselage of the plane. Realizing they wouldn’t survive much longer without help, two of the players began a trek over the mountain in search of help on Dec. 12. Several days later, Fernando Parrado and Roberto Canessa reached the Rio Azufre river valley where they encountered a group of cowboys who alerted authorities. The remaining survivors were rescued the following day, and the rugby team’s story of survival — and cannibalism — blanketed the media.


Tasmanian mine collapse

Ian Waldie/AP.

当大幅度 - 2.1地震发生在2006年4月25日的塔斯马尼亚时,损坏起初似乎似乎太糟糕了 - 直到一词传播它在Beaconsfield附近的金矿中引发了一块岩石坍塌,留下了三名矿工缺少。所有三个最初被害怕死亡,但地震后五天,调查人员使用了热成像相机来发现其中两个仍然活着,地下3000英尺。


救援人员使用爆炸物,岩石分离器,手持式钻头和钻石尖头锯,以雕刻出逃生隧道,以及两位矿工 - 托德罗素和布莱恩韦伯,在左边的左侧描绘 - 最终释放了14天后。但救援是苦乐参半,这是一个没有生存的同事葬礼前的几个小时。


Haiti earthquake survivor

Photo: By arindambanerjee/Shutterstock.com

After Haiti was shaken by a magnitude-7.0 earthquake on Jan. 12, 2010 — killing an estimated 230,000 people — optimism was scarce in the devastated capital of Port-au-Prince. The only bits of good news came as survivors were pulled from the rubble, but without enough machinery to excavate all the fallen buildings, hope was fading quickly.

但在地震后11天,正如官员12月lared an end to searches, a faint tapping noise was heard under the ruins of a hotel. Rescuers traced it to Wismond Exantus, a 24-year-old cashier who had crawled under a desk as the hotel was falling, and lived for 11 days on chips, candy, sodas and beer — plus an entire bottle of white-label whiskey. A Greek and French rescue crew cleared an opening to access him, but when none of the male rescuers could fit through, they sent in a 5-foot-5 Scottish volunteer named Carmen Michalska, who finally helped Exantus squirm free. In a field hospital afterward, Exantus told the Associated Press that optimism and faith kept him alive: "Every night I thought about the revelation that I would survive," he said.



Photo: By Vladislav S/Shutterstock

一群中国矿工在2010年3月28日在2010年3月28日建造了一个王集兵的矿井,当时他们袭击了一个充满水的废弃轴 - 足够的水填充了超过50个奥运尺寸的池 - 并且浪潮涌入矿井。

By clinging to walls and creating makeshift boats from mining carts, 115 miners were able to stay above water, and after five days of pumping the flooded mine, rescuers were finally able to hear voices and frantic tapping sounds. Through a pipe they dropped pens and paper and a glucose solution for nutrition, and after a week, enough water had been pumped out that rescue crews were able to enter the mine in small boats.



Famous fictional escapes

Mario Perez, ABC/AP.

丢失:2004年秋季的海洋航班815坠毁在我们的电视屏幕上,成为即时流行文化现象。Castaways - 包括外科医生,骗子,一个孕妇,摇滚明星和数十个“其他” - 花了六个赛季搁浅在神秘的神话岛上。角色逃脱了岛屿几次。首先,他们逃脱直升机(然后在直升机耗尽燃料后筏)只能返回岛屿。这次逃离了“结局”的一部分,这次使用落在岛上的飞机。尽管他们逃脱了,但许多施说(以及观众)从未设法回答岛上提出的所有问题。

吉利根岛:After 15 years stranded on an uncharted desert isle, the seven castaways finally escape by lashing their huts together to create a makeshift raft. The U.S. Coast Guard spots smoke coming from the raft (Gilligan left a fire unattended while cooking fish) and tows the castaways to Hawaii. The group reunites for a Christmas cruise on the S.S. Minnow II, but they get lost in a storm because Gilligan breaks the compass. The group ends up shipwrecked again ... on the same island.

抛弃:暴力风暴导致查克诺兰的飞机撞到了海洋中,他在一个岛上洗了四年,直到他建造了一个木筏。Noland Sets Sail逃离岛屿,但暴风雨摧毁了他的木筏,扫除了他唯一的朋友,一个名叫威尔逊的排球,出海。悲伤不堪重负,他放弃了救援的任何希望,但很快就会发现一艘货船船。

Pinocchio:When Pinocchio learns that Geppetto has been swallowed by a giant whale named Monstro, he immediately jumps into the ocean where he, too, is eaten by the whale. Upon being reunited with Gepetto in the whale’s stomach, Pinocchio devises a plan to burn wood, which makes Monstro sneeze and frees them from his belly.