如何亚洲城市沉默的车角

虽然过去使加德满都的街道更安全,更清洁和少的混乱的努力很大程度上失败了,但在猖獗的角鸣喇叭上陷入了6个月大的禁令。。(照片:Prakash Mathema / AFP / Getty Images)

关于纽约市的最不喜欢的事情之一是鸣喇叭。

并不是我讨厌汽车角的想法。我讨厌的是滥用它们。比我参观或住在的任何其他城市,纽约充满了公然的喇叭滥用者。作为常旅客和行人,我注意到喇叭并不像警告或告诉你前面的司机snap-out-of-it-and-get-moving, please。相反,它习惯于躺在喇叭上作为膝盖的方式表达你的不满。为了鸣叫而鸣喇叭。

虽然最近在布鲁克林 - 皇后道高速公路上陷入了僵尸锁,但我观察了一座汽车喇叭爆发并分散在四个交通车道上。这些司机 - 几十个他们 - 没有在任何人或任何事情上鸣喇叭。他们是愤怒的嘟嘟声。

Surya Raj Acharya, an urban scientist based in the Nepali capital of Kathmandu, has observed similar behavior in his city. "People pressed the horn just for the sake of it ... 80 percent of the time it was unnecessary. It was mostly just to express their indignation," he tells守护者

But unlike in New York, Acharya doesn’t believe Kathmandu's honking woes to be necessarily profound or endemic. And this is largely why in a congestion-plagued city that's home to 1.4 million people, officials have been successful in silencing vehicle horns altogether.

这是正确的 - 曾经是角快乐加德满都驾驶者踢了鸣喇叭习惯。

As the Guardian reports, governmental agency Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC) — working in cooperation with the Metropolitan Traffic Police Department (MTPD) — first put the kibosh on "unnecessary honking" six months ago after coming to the (somewhat belated) realization that nonstop honking was taking its toll on residents, a majority of whom rely on touristic activities like shuttling visitors to and from流行的文化遗产作为他们的主要收入来源。

“我们收到了大量关于喇叭污染的投诉。每个人都觉得近年来它已经过度了,”加德满都的首席学区官员凯德纳特·沙姆达解释道。“这不仅仅是一个人或社区的观点;我们都感觉到了同样的感觉。它是在每间茶厅讨论的。”

每个MTPD统计数据共享由加德满都邮政,加德满都谷有828,000辆登记车辆。其中大量是卡车和旅游巴士,最多可抛出120分贝。高于85分贝的声音被认为是对人类健康有害的。长期暴露在响亮的角可能导致压力,血压升高hearing damage

An intersection in Kathmandu, Nepal
In lieu of lights, most intersections in 'Hornmandu' are manned by whistle-blowing traffic operators. (Photo: Mario Micklisch/flickr)

“我们想向世界展示我们是多么文明”

The Kathmandu Valley’s ban on indiscriminate honking took effect on April 14, 2017, at the start of the Nepali New Year. And almost immediately, officials deemed the so-called No Horn rule as a success. "We found unnecessary honking reduced significantly on the first day," MTPD spokesperson Lokendra Malla tells the加德满都邮政

According to theHimalayan Times, motorists repeatedly nabbed flaunting the rules can be slapped with fines up to 5,000 Nepalese rupees — or about $48.

加德满都居民在救护车,消防车和警犬车轮后面被允许鸣喇叭。因此,普通驾驶者是否应对某些紧急情况。“如果任何紧急情况来说,人们可以使用他/她的车号,但他/她必须给出适当的理由,”KMC发言人Gyanendra Karki向时间解释。似乎足够公平。

As mentioned, the main aim of the No Horn rule is to alleviate localized noise pollution, particularly in densely populated areas that experience frequent gridlock. As Mingmar Lama, Kathmandu’s former head traffic cop, made clear earlier this year, the city wants to demonstrate to other cities struggling with rampant honking that achieving horn-free — or more realistically, horn-lite — status is possible.

"To mark the new year we wanted to give something new to the people of Kathmandu," he said. "The horn is a symbol of being uncivilised. We wanted to show the world how civilised we are in Kathmandu."

The fact that a no-honking rule has been successfully implemented in a chaotic, clamorous city like Kathmandu may seem like some of miracle. Officials credit consultation with stakeholders, flexibility and a robust public information campaign leading up to the ban as being the three main drivers being this noise pollution-lowering triumph.

“为了确保这次竞选成功,我们有been aggressively disseminating our message to the public through print, broadcast and online media," KMC's spokesperson tells the Post.

"Also, there was nothing to spend and no investment needed — it was just a change in behavior," chief district officer Sharma elaborates to the Guardian.

Holy cows, loud horns

一头母牛在加德满都,尼泊尔加入交通
Moove it please: Street-roaming bovines are a traffic and public safety issue in Kathmandu. (照片:Prakash Mathema / AFP / Getty Images)

虽然NO喇叭规则为尼泊尔资本带来了一个不协调的静止,但在山区南亚国家的其他旅游热点被引入类似的计划),但它并非没有其批评者。

加德满都居民苏林德拉·斯蒂尔斯娜并不同意噪音污染是一个问题。但他还认为,官员应该更多地关注遏制空气污染,修复红绿灯,改善道路,更积极地解决他作为鸣响的根源的观点:慢性糟糕的交通。“当局必须首先解决加德满都谷的交通堵塞问题,如果他们真的希望驾驶者停止鸣喇叭,”他告诉加德满都邮政。

To be fair, the city government has taken steps to decrease pollution levels by outlawing vehicles more than 20 years old. But as the Guardian explains, this law, unlike the horn ban, has been "aggressively resisted."

“运行乘客车辆的辛迪加斯非常强大,因此政府未能逐步阶段,”尼泊尔汽车体育协会副总裁Meghraj Poudyal解释说。“人们从他们那里赚钱,所以辛迪加斯正在与政府讨价还价。如果政府支付他们,他们只会放弃[旧]车辆。”

出租车司机也担心担心偶尔违规的罚款可能被证明是经济毁灭性的。“我们有狗,奶牛和拖拉机穿过街道,所以我们需要我们的角,”出租车司机克里希纳·戈帕尔告诉守护者。

On the topic of cows, in 2013 the city launched acampaign to remove the animalsfrom major thoroughfares. "The stray cows and oxen have been a big nuisance in Kathmandu streets. They not only cause accidents, but also make the streets untidy," a spokesman for KMT told Agence-France-Presse at the time. "We see traffic jams because the drivers who try to avoid the cows often crash into other vehicles."

杀死奶牛的惩罚,被认为是印度文化的神圣,是许多陡峭而不是无偿的角鸣喇叭。参与车辆牛屠宰的人可以被判入狱,最多可被判入狱。

在加德满都,尼泊尔的交通堵塞的道路
虽然官员已经补救了一个巨大的噪音污染来源,但加德满都仍然陷入困境,空气质量差和恒定的僵尸锁。 (照片:RomanMöckli/ Flickr)

Other beep bans

虽然它看起来可能是新颖的,但加德满都不是第一个尝试禁止恶意鸣声的城市。2007年,上海的官员在城市市中心的核心禁止禁止车号。限制被认为是成功并扩大到2013年城市的其他地区(但不是没有criticism)。

2009年,在交通肆无忌惮的印度城市新德里推出了一次性的“没有鸣喇叭日”less-than-ideal results。今年3月,Chhavi Sachdev报道了国家公共收音机在印度各地的城市面临的“鸣喇叭大噪声问题”,在纽约的发出声音,更像是纽约,比防守驾驶的行为更具令人讨厌的反射。

And as for the hotbed of pointless beeping that is the Big Apple, sounding one’s horn excessively is, in fact, illegal. However, in 2013, the city began删除所有标牌提醒法律的驾驶者和与之相关的350美元。运输部门审议了经常忽视的迹象,在20亚博彩票买lol世纪80年代推出的前长市长Ed Koch的Honk-Hating手表,作为一种视觉污染的形式,这几乎没有实际噪音污染。它没有帮助规则被释放强制执行,并且托盘托盘驾驶斯科夫队很少。基本上,这个城市放弃了。霍尔克斯统治。

说说,但也许在下次我面对纽约的角度震耳欲聋的角色,我会靠近拉特曼德的梦想。