11件事你不知道ouija

所有手放在甲板上:奥里亚董事会,维多利亚时代灵性工具和20世纪青少年馆派对主食,拥有漫长而迷人的历史。(照片:Couperfield / Shutterstock)

万圣节在拐角处,现在还有时间与ourija一起吓坏。

通常被驳回为季节性派对诀窍和睡眠主食,通常会诱导咯咯笑和至少两个不高兴的青少年女孩而不是与大量的大量谈话,奥里亚董事会有一个漫长而引人注目的历史。由于其怪异的怪异 - 并且有时彻头彻尾的恶魔声誉,Ouija多年来,Ouija多年来一直享受了狂野的普遍性的大众的“谈话委员会”。

您可能已经熟悉基本设置。电路板的中心以两个拱形行显示完整的字母表,直行数 - 零九 - 以及,下方,在所有帽子中拼写“再见”。在板的上部角落中是提示“是”和“否”。没有坚定的规则或得分。只需将两个手指轻轻放在泪珠形的指向装置上设置,并提出一个问题。在时间之内,董事会将通过拼写答案来响应。如果没有响应,请稍等再试一次。

Beyond that, the inner workings of Ouija are shrouded in mystery.

To make sense of it all, we’ve unearthed everything you ever wanted to know about the Ouija board from its esoteric beginnings in the spiritualist movement to its runaway success as an early 20th century parlor game to its massive impact on popular culture and on how — and what — we choose to相信

它是永远的

The Ouija board — a trademarked name both referring to the "classic spirit-world game" sold by Hasbro or, generically, any similar type of talking or spirit board — has roots in the spiritualism, a religious movement that was fashionable amongst the upwardly mobile classes in both the United States and Europe during the mid to late 19th century through the 1920s. In many aspects, spiritualism wasn’t all that different from mainstream Protestant Christianity. Spiritualists went to church on Sunday and sang hymns like everyone else. But it’s what spiritualists did on evenings during the rest of the week that set them apart.

灵性主义的核心信仰之一是死者的精神可以 - 并且非常渴望 - 与生活沟通。由谈话板上的工具辅助,生活与死者之间的对话被组织精神欺骗会议的中等促进了 - 秘书。多年来,Seances普遍存在,附着很小。当毁灭家庭绝望地建立丢失的亲人的闭幕时,这尤其如此。根据流行的传奇,甚至是玛丽托德林肯,他没有识别为灵性主义者,也与着名的中等友好,在白宫举办了肖恩,试图联系一个死于伤寒的儿子12.

"Communicating with the dead was common, it wasn’t seen as bizarre or weird," Ouija collector and historianRobert Murchtold the史密森尼人in an excellent 2013 history of the board. It’s hard to imagine that now, we look at that and think, 'Why are you opening the gates of hell?'"

原始的1891个ouija董事会
一个原始的1891ouiija板。 (Photo: Wikimedia Commons)

Baltimore-born

Considering the ubiquity of talking boards within the faddish 19th century spiritualist movement, it was inevitable that someone would commercialize one.

It was Baltimore investor Elijah Bond who filed the patent for the modern-day Ouija on behalf of the Kennard Novelty Company in 1891. Bond envisioned his mass-produced spirit board as an enigmatic parlor game featuring a standard lettered talking board and pointing device. Consumers not familiar with seances or spiritualism had only a vague idea of what the Ouija did or how to use it. Thecryptic instructionswritten by Kennard employee William Fuld didn't help: "The Ouija is a great mystery, and we do not claim to give exact directions for its management, neither do we claim that at all times and under all circumstances it will work equally well. But we do claim and guarantee that with reasonable patience and judgment it will more than satisfy your greatest expectation."

But none of this mattered — the boards were selling like hotcakes. "Ultimately, it was a money-maker. They didn’t care why people thought it worked," Murch explains of the Kennard Novelty Company.

1901年,富尔德在吹捧其超自然的同时将其销售了董事会的生产,并将其销售进一步从精神主义延伸 - 但完全安全使用 - 神秘主义者。富尔公司的ouija从1910年代到20世纪30年代非常受欢迎,当时的时间是一个 - 长宁的时候,随着默ch的指出,来自各界人士的人都抓住了一些东西,任何事物to believe in. Although Fuld died in 1927 (as legend has it, he fell off the roof of a new factory that a board instructed him to build), his estate maintained control of Ouija until 1966.

Ouija box, 1970s, Parker Brothers
来自帕克兄弟的标志性的70s-era ouija盒子。 (照片:FelineBird / Flickr)

是的是的?好吧,没有

尽管几十年的流行度,但Ouija最持久的奥秘之一是其名称的起源。大多数人认为,它是一个单词的法国和德语的化合物 - 一个单词 - 在这种情况下 - 在本案中发现了在板本身的左上角:“是的”。Ouiandja– yes and yes.

Based on his own research, Murch has his own theory on where "Ouija" comes from — and it's far more dish-y. In 2012, Murch discovered a 1919 article published by the Baltimore American in which Charles Kennard of the Kennard Novelty Company was asked about how Ouija got its name. Per the story relayed by Kennard, in 1890, one year before the Ouija was patented, he found himself holed up with investor Elijah Bond and Bond’s sister-in-law, a socialite medium named Helen Peters, trying to think of a winning moniker for their talking board-based parlor game. They were stumped so, naturally, they asked the board for suggestions. They placed their fingers on the pointing device and it spelled out O-U-I-J-A. They then asked the board what the word meant. It spelled out "good luck."

根据肯纳德的回忆,彼得斯然后透露,她戴着一个包含一个女人照片的洛克塞特,其中名称“ourija”铭刻在它下面。然而,穆奇确信肯纳德误读了铭文,并且彩色英国冒险小说家玛丽亚路易斯·罗马的照片在Nom de Plume Ouida下发表了工作。

Murch theorizes toAtlas Obscurathat it's plausible Peters would wear a locket as a wearable tribute to Ouida: "In 1890, Ouida’s books were very important. It makes sense that Helen [Peters] would wear a locket with her name on it, because she was so educated and articulate," explained Murch. "For 20 years I researched the fathers of the Ouija board. Turns out, it had a mother."

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9gL9ufwA8qU

From the company that brought you Monopoly and My Little Pony

在富富公司享受大规模成功之后,1966年由Powerhouse Parker Brothers收购了Ouija董事会的成功更大。1967年,销售了200万台Ouija,将长期帕克兄弟喜爱垄断的销量销售。尽管宗教持有量相当(有点有关),everyone似乎有一个Ouija董事会和一个膨胀的故事,以讲述使用所述Ouija板。广告为一个“神秘的甲骨文”,这是一个无害的派对游戏 - 有点幽灵,有点愚蠢,偏离战略,琐事和假纸币。大多数人甚至没有了解董事会的根源在灵性运动中 - 他们只是拥有一个,因为所以如此,所以告诉他们,这对一点晚餐派对有趣。

Vintage Ouija board ad, Parker BrothersSolidariat/flickr)" data-caption="Vintage Ouija board ad, Parker Brothers" data-expand="300" id="mntl-sc-block-image_1-0-44" data-tracking-container="true">
Vintage Ouija board ad, Parker Brothers. (Photo:Solidariat/ flickr)

And then, in 1973, "The Exorcist" — a film based on a novel that was loosely inspired by true events – happened. And from then on, sales dipped and the Ouija board took on a more sinister reputation. Almost overnight, the Ouija-obsessed became the Ouija-wary. "It’s kind of like Psycho — no one was afraid of showers until that scene... It’s a clear line," Robert Murch tells the Smithsonian.

仍然,ouija - 部分感谢无所畏惧的青少年和恐怖作家 - 在流行文化心理中更加稳定,因为它的新协会具有恶魔占有的新协会。1991年,所有Parker兄弟产品和商标都是由玩具Beemoth Hasbro收购,此前还收购了另一个心爱的董事会游戏恒星,米尔顿布拉德利公司。

富富公司生产的葡萄酒ouija董事会。
由基于巴尔的摩富德公司制造的葡萄酒Ouija板。 (照片:Jonas Forth / Flickr)

它被称为一个普拉克特

So, about that paddle-shaped pointer-thing with the tiny magnifying glass in the middle: While the folks at Hasbro refer to it as a "message indicator," it's formally known as a planchette — from the French for "little plank" — and it actually predates the Oujia board by some years.

以及嗅到的盐和精神喇叭,Planchettes是维多利亚时代的肠蠕动的主食。每个开明的家庭都有一个 - 更大,更有华丽的更好。Unlike the smaller, mass-produced planchettes that come with Ouija boards and are primarily used for pointing out letters, early planchettes were caster-supported, heart-shaped wooden devices outfitted with pencils and used for automatic writing — also known as psychography, it’s writing without use of the conscious mind, basically — in lieu of otherworldly dictating.

Following the mass-market introduction of planchette-assisted talking board "toys" in 1890, automatic writing planchettes fell out of favor and ultimately disappeared altogether despite a small handful of revivals in the early 20th century. (We do, however, appear to be in the midst of anEtsy-Foreed现代复兴。)虽然Planchette纯粹主义者可能会乞求不同,但是通过铅笔,纸张和难以辨认的精神手写,ouija板简化了与其他方程的整个沟通与其他方程式。

A medium uses the Ouija in the 1950s
A seance is held using a DIY wine glass talking board in the 1950s. (照片:奥兰多/三狮/盖蒂图像)

天主教会不是一个粉丝

Despite enjoying mainstream popularity over the decades (save for that touchy period following the release of "The Exorcist"), Ouija boards have long been considered taboo by religious groups. During the height of their popularity in the freewheeling 1960s, talking boards were akin to dirty magazines and Elvis Presley records in strict and devout households. That is, they were shameful, uncouth and potentially dangerous objects to be hidden under the bed or stashed inside that seldom-used Chutes and Ladders box lest one’s Bible-thumping mother confiscate it.

The Roman Catholic Church has been particularly critical of the Ouija, dating back to 1919 when Pope Pius X warned the faithful to stay away from parlor games associated with the occult. The websiteCatholic Answersrefers to the "far from harmless" use of Ouija boards as a form of divination or "seeking information from supernatural sources." It’s likely that there are more than few well-adjusted adults out there who were ratted out as kids for dabbling with the Ouija at slumber parties hosted by more permissive parents. While probably no fun at the time, there’s no denying that divination is a rad excuse for getting grounded for a month.

A sequel-generating sensation

Movies based on or revolving around real-life classic tabletop games are somewhat of a rare breed save for the delightful "Clue" (1985) and 2012's spectacularly dumb "Battleship." (Don't hold your breath for thefilm versionof Hungry Hungry Hippos.)

然而,占卜板,是一个值得注意的例外。之一the game’s earliest big screen appearances was in the 1944 haunted house romance picture, "The Uninvited." But it wasn’t until 1973 — when sales were still riding high after the Parker Brothers acquisition — that the game played a central role in a movie that truly traumatized people. Although a board only appears onscreen briefly in the Academy Award-winning film adaptation of William Peter Blatty’s "The Exorcist," it was more than enough to get people to take a second look at the "mystifying oracle" collecting dust on a bookshelf. After all, the board做过serve as a conduit for an unknown entity/imaginary friend named Captain Howdy to make contact with 12-year-old Regan MacNeil. "I ask the questions and he gives the answers!" she explains to her mother. Just weeks later, Regan is pushing babysitters out of windows, projectile vomiting on priests and saying things that would make even the saltiest sailor blush.

Other Ouija-featuring movies — like "The Exorcist," most concern demonic possession and things that go bump in the night — include "13 Ghosts" (1960), "What Lies Beneath," (2000), "Paranormal Activity" (2007), "The Conjuring 2" (2016) and "Ouija: Origin of Evil" a better-than-you’d-expect 2016 prequel to the first "Ouija" film released two years prior. It was "Witchboard," a sequel-spawning cult horror flick from 1986 that inspired Robert Murch, chairman of the Board at the谈话董事会历史学会,开始对ouija的岁月长期痴迷。

多产的幽灵妇女

In addition to numerous movies of varying quality, the Ouija board has inspired various works of literature. Or to be more precise, Ouija boards have produced — letter by painstakingly letter — various works of literature.

Perhaps the most infamous Ouija-generated book is "Jap Herron: A Novel Written From the Ouija Board." Published in 1917, the novel’s author is Mark Twain — or, rather, theghost马克吐温。通过Medium Emily Grant Hutchings转录,这部小说在Twain的死亡之后七年出版,并且由于当时的苏亚董事会的广泛普及,这是一个谦虚的成功。据报道,据据据据报道,随着佩带的精神,以及同学麦洛哈的Hays,完成小说。Twain的女儿,克拉拉克莱森,后来起诉碰起。

More prolific than the ghost of Twain was a spirit named Patience Worth who, through a Ouija board-using medium named Pearl Lenore Curran, generated several novels and books of poetry. (Curran, go figure, happened to be a friend of Hutchings).

1982年,晚普利策奖品获奖诗人詹姆斯美林发布了一个560页的史诗诗,标题为“丹参的变化光”。1983年收到了全国读书批评圈奖的工作是在20年的跨度中编写的,并且主要由Merrill托管的Seances举办的Ouija董事会决定的消息组成。

Ouija董事会的葡萄酒广告
What a deal: a vintage advert for a pre-Parker Brothers Ouija board. (照片:Public Domain Review / Flickr)

有没有......

据An有趣地说明的wikihow文章on Ouija safety that should be taken with a disproportionately large grain of salt, there are steps to be taken to ensure that you commune with the dead successfully and "not attract demonic entities." They include lighting white candles around the board (they attract good vibes) and cleaning the board before each use (a bundle of sage, not Windex). It’s also important, obviously, to keep a close eye on the planchette andalwaysmove the planchette to "goodbye" when you’ve had enough and it comes time to pretend that you need to take a phone call in the other room. Without properly "closing the door," the spirit will linger. It’s also just plain rude. In terms of timing, a fall or winter evening — the closer to midnight the better — is optimum for a chat with the other side.

And there are dont's

According to the same WikiHow tutorial, some of the top Ouija no-nos are using the board in your home (where are you supposed to use it? A friend’s house? The nearest Starbucks?) or in a graveyard (duh), using a board while fatigued, using a board while under the influence and using the board alone. It’s also crucial to avoid asking annoying questions or spelling out curse words when in conversation. Be polite! And whatever you do, don’t trust a spirit. It would be easier to detect a lie via body language but, alas, it’s also a bad idea to ask a spirit to show itself even if they pinky-swear that they look like Patrick Swayze in "Ghost" or Daryl Hannah in "High Spirits."

人们用烛光使用ouija
A Ouija-facilitated convo with the other side is best aided with candlelight. (Photo: ℳadeline/flickr)

OK, so what's really happening is ...

Here’s the thing: Ouija boards don’t work. Well, they don’t work likethat。或者他们也可以为某些人做。我们不在这里争取自己的不可思议的遭遇。

那么,负责的运动the planchette across the board? Sometimes, it’s teenage hormones. Other times, if might be a prankster friend. And who knows ... the ghosts of the dead twins that live in the crawlspace might have something to do with it. But per the scientific community, talking boards are powered by a psychological phenomenon known as the ideomotor effect. ("Ideo" comes from idea or cognitive representation and "motor" relates to the movement of muscles.)

称之为“您的身体与自己交谈”的现象,一个深入的解释者发表vox.details how reflexive movements propel a Ouija session.

In the case of a Ouija board, your brain may unconsciously create images and memories when you ask the board questions. Your body responds to your brain without you consciously "telling" it to do so, causing the muscles in your hands and arms to move the pointer to the answers that you — again, unconsciously — may want to receive.

And here’s where things get truly interesting:

Over the years, research has determined that the ideomotor effect is closely tied to subconscious awareness — and that its effect is maximized when the subject believes he has no control of his movements. Paradoxically, the less control you思考you have, the more control your subconscious mind is actually exerting. This is where the Ouija board’s triangular pointer comes in. The planchette makes it easier to subconsciously control your muscle movements, because it focuses and directs them even while you believe you aren’t in control of them. It’s also why the planchette seems to move even more effectively when multiple people are using the planchette at once: It frees everyone’s minds to subconsciously generate creepy Ouija board answers together.

No doubt the subconscious mind is a power thing. But when it comes to Ouija boards, sight is also paramount. Over the years, numerous scientific studies on the matter have been conducted. In many of them, participants are blindfolded. When不是被蒙住眼睛,从伟大的响应时尽可能清楚地结束。正如下面的视频中所证明的那样,当参与者被摧毁的视线并无法操纵普拉特,这是一个完全不同的故事。如果它真的是一种精神说话,为什么参与者可以看到或没有重要?

Vox继续注意,除了显灵板ideomotor effect is a driving force behind other occurrences deemed as being paranormal in nature: automatic writing, demonic possession,dowsing就像。据说,即德语效应也是多年来各种恶作剧,欺诈和诈骗的基础,比其他人更为邪恶。

所以,在一天结束时,是ouija都只是一个巨大的骗局 - 这是一个古老的客厅游戏思想讨论返回19世纪?

嘿,不要问我们。董事会有最好的答案。

葡萄酒ouija广告:solidaritat/ Flickr.