5 ways to improve global food security

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©马朗的马农·韦尔乔特稻农,印度尼西亚

全世界近10亿人挨饿。考虑到我们已经生产了足够的食物来养活整个地球,这应该不再是问题了。但有很多因素阻碍了这一进程,including inefficient use of water,肥料和作物轮作。

这就是为什么保罗C。West and a team of researchers developed a set of ways to improve global food security.

"Our aim in writing this paper was to do an analysis that highlights that the opportunities and challenges to create a sustainable food system are concentrated in a small set of crops and places," West,明尼苏达大学全球景观倡议联合主任,告诉Treehugger。"Targeting actions in these places can have not only local,而且是区域性的,在某些情况下,会对全球产生影响。”

根据他们的 report,加强一些关键的杠杆作用将提供足够的热量来养活30亿人,同时也考虑到环境福利:
  1. Close the yield gap
    到2050年,120 million hectares of natural habitats will be converted to farming in developing countries,世界野生动物基金会估计。In many parts of the world,目前的农业用地还没有达到其潜力,yielding 50 percent less than what it could produce.缩小正在生产的和可以生产的之间的差距,既可以减少清理农业用地的需要,也可以养活8.5亿人。The next points address how this gap can be diminished.

  2. 更有效地使用肥料
    At TreeHugger,我们是not big fansof synthetic fertilizers,但现实情况是,它们在世界各地大量使用。有一些好消息:根据以前的研究,韦斯特和他的团队估计,在小麦上使用含氮和磷的肥料,水稻和玉米的产量可以减少13-29%,而且产量仍然保持不变。通过调整时间,可以进一步提高效率,placement and type of fertilizer.

  3. Raise low water productivity
    水是个大问题,and we've书面很多次。Improving irrigation systems and planting crops that use less water would be an effective way to tackle this.例如,水稻和甘蔗是最需要水的作物之一。但改变种植作物的类型并不简单,因为农民根据市场价值决定种植什么作物,International Food Policy Research Institute Senior Research Fellow Lawrence Haddad pointed out to TreeHugger.鼓励变革的一种方式是提供经济激励,但这可能会因地区差异和文化品味而改变。

  4. Target food for direct consumption
    当农作物转化为动物饲料和其他非食品用途时,会损失大量的热量效率。如果这些作物直接用来喂人,West and his team calculated that they could provide enough calories for 4 billion people.在某些情况下,这意味着改变某些作物的种植地点,但就像第3点一样,改变作物并非易事。农民种植农作物,以确保他们和他们的家人可以吃,这是否意味着吃自己的作物,或是出售它们来买得起食物。"Lots of assumptions are made in this study: that people are willing to change their diets;that people in wealthy countries are willing to take significant measures to reduce food yabo彩票waste;贫困国家拥有纠正产量差距的政治和经济手段。Carol Barford,director of the Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment at the University of Wisconsin.

    但韦斯特对此做出了回应:“假设饮食结构很快就会发生根本性的变化,这将是非常幼稚的。In fact,世界上许多地方都有肉类消费的趋势。Our main point here is that the amount of calories that we already grow but feed to animals is a *huge* number of calories.Even small changes in diet can have a profound impact."


  5. Reduce food yabo彩票waste
    Globally,30-50 percent of food production goes to yabo彩票waste because of inefficient preparation or inadequate storage facilities.The United States is one of the biggest culprits for this and needs an agricultural land base that is 7 to 8 times larger than a land base in India to compensate for this yabo彩票waste.减少美国的食物浪费,yabo彩票印度和中国每年可以养活4.13亿人。

While West's study provides some areas which need to be considered by policy makers,这项研究并没有太深入地研究经济学。

"The research focuses on food availability,但我想说的是,饥饿的大部分问题都围绕着食物的获取——人们是否有足够的收入来购买食物?”哈达德,伊夫普里,said in an email.哈达德写道,关于全球粮食安全的讨论还应解决高收入和低收入群体的不同需求,在气候变化和社会冲突面前最大限度地提高粮食链的弹性,减少温室气体排放。

公平地说,韦斯特承认,他的文章没有涉及到食物获取和营养问题,但他补充说,"It does address many of the key aspects of creating a sustainable food system using low-tech tools,包括在粮食不安全地区使用化肥促进生产,以造福这些地区的人民,同时减少对主要面包篮的依赖,减少浪费,yabo彩票以及通过改变提高效率的管理实践来减少环境影响。访问,nutrition,文化偏好都需要与我们解决的问题相一致。”

The complexity of issues like food security is the reason hunger is such a prevalent issue in the 21st century.Tackling hunger will take a multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary approach.

5 ways to improve global food security
The US produces more than enough food to feed the world,但是饥饿仍然是世界上的一个主要问题。一项新的研究提出了一些改变这种状况的方法。