历史上的13个最大的漏油

走在水和油的人们

Pornsak Na Nakorn / EyeEm / Getty Images

当居尔的“深水地平线”钻井平台沉没f of Mexico on April 22, 2010, no one was prepared for the massive environmental disaster that followed. We can see how the Gulf oil spill, the worst environmental disaster in U.S. history, stacks up against the world's worst oil spills.

13. The Torrey Canyon Oil Spill
When:
1967年3月18日
哪里:骗子群岛,U.K.
Amount spilled:25-360万加仑

The Torrey Canyon was one of the first big supertankers, and it was also the source of one of the first major oil spills. Although the ship was originally built to carry 60,000 tons, it was enlarged to a 120,000-ton capacity, and that’s the amount the ship was carrying when it hit a reef off the coast of Cornwall.

The spill created an oil slick measuring 270 square miles, contaminating 180 miles of coastland. More than 15,000 sea birds and enormous numbers of aquatic animals were killed before the spill was finally contained.

Toxic solvent-based cleaning agents were used by Royal Navy vessels to try to disperse the oil, but that didn't work very well and instead caused a great deal of environmental damage. It was then decided to set fire to the ocean and burn away the oil by dropping bombs.

12. The Sea Star Oil Spill
When:
Dec. 19, 1972

哪里:Gulf of OmanAmount spilled:35.3 million gallons

韩国超级堤,海星,与巴西罐车,Horta Barbosa,于1972年12月19日上午落在阿曼海岸。碰撞后,船员在碰撞后起火了。虽然Horta Barbosa在一天中熄灭,但海星于12月24日在几次爆炸后沉入海湾。

11. Odyssey Oil Spill
When:
Nov. 10, 1988
哪里:在加拿大新斯科舍省海岸Amount spilled:4070万加仑

This large oil spill occurred about 700 nautical miles off the coast of Newfoundland and spilled more than 40 million gallons of oil into the ocean.

10. M / T避风港油泄漏
When:
April 11, 1991
哪里:热那亚,意大利Amount spilled:4500万加仑

This oil tanker exploded and sank off the coast of Italy, killing six people and leaking its remaining oil into the Mediterranean for 12 years. The source of the explosion was thought to be the ship’s poor state of repair — supposedly the Haven was scrapped after being hit by a missile during the Iran-Iraq War, but was put back into operation.

9. ABT夏季漏油
When:
May 28, 1991哪里:距安哥拉海岸约700海里Amount spilled:51-81 million gallons

这艘船爆炸了安哥拉的海岸,将大量的油放入海洋中。船上的32名船员中的五名因事件而死亡。一个大的光滑覆盖一个80平方英里的面积,在油轮周围传播并在1991年6月1日船沉没之前烧了三天。随后努力定位残骸的努力是不成功的。

8. Amoco Cadiz Oil Spill

布列塔尼的布列塔尼的上油海滩来自布列塔尼的这一上油海滩是Amoco Cadiz漏油的结果。National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration / Wikimedia Commons / Public domain

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国家海洋和大气管理局/ Wikimedia Commons / Public domain

When:March 16, 1978
哪里:Portsall,法国
Amount spilled:69 million gallons

巨大的Amoco Cadiz陷入了冬季风暴中,这些风暴损坏了船的方向舵。这艘船推出了一个痛苦的电话,但虽然几艘船回应,但没有人能够防止船只搁浅。3月17日,巨大的Supertanker突破了一半,将6900万加仑的石油送到英语频道。法国后来沉没了船。

7. Castillo de Bellver Oil Spill
When:
Aug. 6, 1983哪里:Saldanha Bay, South AfricaAmount spilled:79 million gallons

The Castillo de Bellver caught fire about 70 miles north west of Cape Town, and drifted in the open sea until it broke in two 25 miles off the coast. The ship’s stern sank along with the 31 million gallons of oil it was carrying. The bow section was towed and deliberately sunk later.

6. Nowruz Oil Field Spill
When:
1983年2月10日
哪里:Persian Gulf, IranAmount spilled:80 million gallons

漏油是油轮与油平台碰撞的结果。弱化平台关闭,它在撞击时坍塌,喷油进入波斯湾。伊朗和伊拉克之间的持续战争阻止了迅速封顶的泄漏。

5. Kolva River Oil Spill
When:
Aug. 6, 1983
哪里:科尔瓦河,俄罗斯Amount spilled:84 million gallons

A poorly maintained pipeline caused this massive oil spill. The pipeline had been leaking for eight months, but a dike contained the oil until sudden cold weather caused the dike to collapse. Millions of gallons of accumulated oil were released that spread across 170 acres of streams, fragile bogs and marshland.

4. Atlantic Empress Oil Spill
When:
July 19, 1979哪里:关闭特立尼达和多巴哥的海岸Amount spilled:90 million gallons

这款希腊油轮在与爱琴海队长相撞时,在特立尼达和多巴哥的海岸上捕获了一个热带风暴。损坏的船舶开始失去油,并在拖曳时继续将其泄漏到海洋中。1979年8月3日,油箱终于沉入了深水中,剩余的货物凝固。

3. ixtoc 1漏油

在墨西哥坎佩利湾的平台135燃烧和沉没后,ixtoci i油井井喷。U.S. — NOAA / Wikimedia Commons / Public domain

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U.S. — NOAA/ Wikimedia Commons / Public domain

When:June 3, 1979哪里:Bay of Campeche off Ciudad del Carmen, MexicoAmount spilled:140 million gallons

像墨西哥湾漏油事件,这泄漏并没有涉及a tanker, but rather an offshore oil well. Pemex, a state-owned Mexican petroleum company was drilling an oil well when a blowout occurred, the oil ignited and the drilling rig to collapse. Oil began gushing out of the well into the Gulf of Mexico at a rate of 10,000 to 30,000 barrels a day for almost an entire year before workers were finally able to cap the well.

海湾漏油

The Discoverer Enterprise and the Q4000 burn undesirable gases from the still uncapped Deepwater Horizon well in the Gulf of MexicoDVIDSHUB / Flickr / CC BY 2.0" data-caption="" data-expand="300" id="mntl-sc-block-image_1-0-60" data-tracking-container="true">

DVIDSHUB/ Flickr / CC BY 2.0

When:April 22, 2010哪里:Gulf of MexicoAmount spilled:An estimated 206 million gallons

海湾漏油泄漏是世界历史上最大的意外溢出。它开始了在海湾地表爆炸的水平下方的油井,导致BP的深水地平线钻机爆炸引起了11人。BP尝试插入井的几次不成功的尝试,但流量的流动 - 可能以高达250万加仑的速度,直到井在2010年7月15日封装。油从破碎井中涌出超过85天,上油572英里的海湾海岸线,杀死了数百只鸟和海洋生物。石油的长期效果和在这种脆弱的生态系统上使用的182万加仑分散剂仍然是未知的,但专家表示,他们可能会摧毁墨西哥湾沿岸多年来。

1. Arabian Gulf/Kuwait

When:Jan. 19, 1991
哪里:Persian Gulf, KuwaitAmount spilled:380-520 million gallons

The worst oil spill in history wasn't an accident — it was deliberate. During the Gulf War, Iraqi forces attempted to prevent American soldiers from landing by opening valves at an offshore oil terminal and dumping oil from tankers. The oil resulted in a 4-inch thick oil slick that spread across 4,000 square miles in the Persian Gulf.

埃克森瓦尔德斯漏油泄漏如何比较?

When the Exxon Valdez supertanker hit a reef off the Alaskan coast, 11 of its cargo tanks ruptured, dumping 11 million gallons of crude into Prince William Sound. But the spill could have been much worse — the Valdez was carrying 53 million gallons.

在纯粹的卷方面,埃克森·瓦尔德兹泄漏队作为历史上的第36次最差的漏油泄漏;然而,泄漏远非小。尽管尝试使用分散剂和漏油船舶,但油洗了1,300英里的阿拉斯加海岸线。今天,石油在阿拉斯加的许多海滩上仍然是几英寸的表面。

响应者发现了超过35,000只鸟类和1000个海獭的屠体被认为是动物死亡人数的一小部分,因为尸体通常沉入海床。据估计,估计250,000个海鸟,2,800个海獭,300个港口海豹,250颗秃头,最多22只杀手鲸和数十亿的三文鱼和鲱鱼鸡蛋。

The repaired Exxon Valdez was renamed the SeaRiver Mediterranean, and, although it is banned from Alaskan waters, the tanker still carries oil around the world.

Catie Leary contributed to this story.