什么是逃犯排放?定义和影响

蒸汽从工业环境中的管道释放

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逃逸排放是气体,蒸气不小心释放到大气中。大多数逃逸排放来自工业活动,如工厂操作。这些排放有助于气候变化和空气污染。一些逃逸排放,如来自医疗灭菌设施的环氧乙烷释放,对生活中的人们构成了重大的健康风险。其他逃逸排放,如石油和天然气工业无意地释放的甲烷,为大气增加了温室气体,比二氧化碳更强80倍。在美国,逃犯排放主要受环境保护局或美国环保局的监管清洁空气法案

Types of Fugitive Emissions

逃犯排放有多种形式,包括dust, fine particles, and aerosols. Of these, the most environmentally impactful fugitive emissions are greenhouse gases, such as refrigerants and methane.

灰尘

A truck spraying water onto dirt on a construction site.
将水喷涂到未铺砌的区域上,以防止车辆踢出灰尘。

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灰尘或土壤和其他有机材料的细颗粒无意从driving on unpaved roads, tilling of agricultural fields, and heavy construction operations. Once kicked-up, dust can contribute to air pollution. Fugitive dust can cause people to have difficulty breathing, chronic respiratory illness, and lung disease. It can also increase the risk oftraffic accidents由于屏蔽阳光,由于降低了可见性并降低了农业生产力。在美国,西南部的干旱和半干旱地区尤其有持续发展释放逃亡粉尘的风险。

On construction sites, dust can be managed by frequently wetting unpaved areas. When wet, fine particles on the ground are too heavy to be kicked up during the operation of construction machinery. In agriculture,dust can be reducedby the planting of cover crops, irrigation, reducing the frequency of tilling, and combining tractor operations.

CFCs

An air compressor next to a building used as part of an air conditioning system.
空调系统使用制冷剂,可以释放为逃逸排放。

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各种类型的氯氟烃或氟氯化碳,常用于20世纪作为制冷剂。氟氯化碳的生产被禁止在美国和世界各地的许多国家在20世纪90年代。然而,从过时的设备中的持续使用和在灭火系统中使用回收的氟氯化合物,这些环保化学品的意外释放仍在继续使用氟氯化碳。2012年和2018年之间,有一个substantial increase在氟氯化碳的含量释放到地球大气中。减少氟氯化碳逃亡释放的国际努力导致2019年和2020年的大气氟氯化碳迅速下降。

雾化器

一个女人在医生的监督下呼吸雾化器。
喷雾器提供的一些雾化药物可以逃离周围的空气作为逃逸排放。

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常用于现代医学的各种气溶胶导致逃逸排放。这些排放的一个来源是雾化器,这有助于将药物递给患者在雾化中的肺部。雾化剂主要用于治疗呼吸系统疾病。然而,在将这些气溶胶输送到患者的过程中,有些意外地逃脱。这些逃逸排放可以留在周围的空气中几个小时,让人们面临意外吸入药物的风险。

Oil and Gas

a fracking rig in in a flat landscape
The natural gas wells created by fracking are an important source of fugitive methane emissions.

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Oil and gas wells are a substantial source of fugitive emissions. In 2018, a natural gas well in Ohio operated by a subsidiary of ExxonMobil leakedmillions of cubic feet of methane在20天内进入大气 - 比许多欧洲国家在一整年内发布的更多甲烷。这种大规模释放的逃亡排放是卫星常规全球调查检测- 使用卫星技术检测的第一种泄漏。由于美国的煤转移到天然气,甲烷泄漏是普遍的,后者在烧焦时会产生更少的温室气体排放量。然而,在天然气提取过程中意外释放甲烷may counteract天然气对煤炭的排放优势。

Additional fugitive emissions come from the oil and gas industry's abandoned wells. Abandoned,uncapped wells还众所周知,在关闭后释放甲烷进入大气中。在某些情况下,逃逸排放通过良好或不正确的井释放。

Ethylene Oxide

环氧乙烷是用来制造各种各样的chemicals, like plastics, textiles, and antifreeze, and is used to sterilize foods, spices, and medical equipment. Since the 1980s, ethylene oxide is known to导致动物癌症based on studies conducted on mice and rats. It is considered to be a已知的致癌物by the US EPA and the CDC. During a recent review of the hazardous emissions, the EPA found the fugitive release of ethylene oxide to be themost significant driverof unacceptable health risks resulting from all hazardous air pollutants in the United States.

逃犯排放如何调节?

热管道中蒸汽泄漏。蒸汽从带阀门的生锈管出去
vladimir zapletin / getty图像

大多数逃犯排放由EPA调节。在某些情况下,国家和地方机构将进一步的规定释放逃脱排放。

灰尘Regulations

许多开发项目都必须经历the National Environmental Protection Act或Nepa,包括对项目的评估anticipated air quality impacts。如果预计项目对空气质量有“重大”影响,例如通过禁用灰尘的逃逸,EPA可能需要减轻效果的措施。一些州,如加利福尼亚州,有一个额外的环境审查过程,将空气质量标准应用于某些项目,包括不需要通过NEPA流程所需的项目。这些空气质量法规包括措施降低逃逸排放的风险

CFC Regulations

用于使用各种氯氟烃(CFC)和盐酸氟碳(HCFC)的冰箱和空调装置。发现后,这些气溶胶在地球臭氧层的洞中铺设了孔,导致国际批准了Montreal Protocolin 1988 and1990年对清洁航空法案的修订phased out the use of these and other environmentally damaging chemicals. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are used today instead.

Similarly, halon was once commonly used for fire suppression. Halon can quickly suck the oxygen out of a room, rapidly stopping a fire. However, in addition to being deadly to people, halon also has an ozone-depleting effect. The EPA began phasing out the production and import of new halon in 1994. Halon blends were banned in 1998. Today,only recycled halon is usedfor specific fire suppression applications, such as on aircraft and for oil and gas exploration operations. The EPA only allows the release of halon during the testing, maintenance, and repair of halon-containing equipment. The EPA has the authority to征收重金属针对意外或没有EPA授权的人释放哈隆和其他臭氧消耗物质的人。

虽然在美国禁止生产许多臭氧消耗物质以及全球其他一些国家,但含有这些温室气体的旧产品仍留在旧冰箱和空调单位。随着这些数十年的设备碎片恶化,他们所持有的氟氯化碳通常被释放为逃亡排放。这些臭氧消耗物质之一,CFC-12,捕获二氧化碳热的近11000倍。鉴于这些旧的环境危害,经常忘记的制冷剂,旧氟氯化碳的回收是现在的一部分carbon-offset market:人们可以换钱交换旧制冷剂。

Monitoring Requirements for Fugitive Emissions

EPA需要某些实体,如主动油井和压缩机站,以对逃亡排放的半年或年度测试。一旦发现了逃逸排放来源,EPA需要维修30天内。2020年,EPAeliminated monitoring requirements对于“低生产”井网站 - 每天生产不到15桶的人。对偶然甲烷排放的限制也减少,即使是oil industry proponents criticized

EPA同样调节无意释放环氧乙烷。但是,在2016年,EPA将允许的暴露水平增加近50倍。2018年,对密歇根灭菌机构的研究发现局部环氧乙烷水平为EPA 2016极限的100倍1500次州的极限。该研究得出结论,高环氧暴露水平主要由未达到的逃逸排放引起。按密歇根州的环境,大湖和能源(Eble)的秩序,设施是被迫关闭in January 2020 and pay a $110,000 penalty to the State of Michigan.

Future Outlooks

近年来,逃亡排放对气候变化和人类健康的影响。

Carbon Offset Market for CFCs

在美国,预计碳抵消市场将继续通过激励现禁止的温室气体的删除来填补氟氯化碳逃逸排放中的一些差距。但是,碳抵消项目必须等待学分销售以进行投资回报。对于发展中国家,对资本前期的需求may be a barrier to implementing effective carbon offset programs for CFCs.

甲烷排放量

According to a 2018 report published by气候作品, the oil and gas industry is the primary producer of fugitive emissions. The report also found the United States to be the second-largest producer of fugitive emissions of the 10 countries analyzed. The Biden Administrationhas moved to review,并潜在地删除了一些特朗普政府的回滚到干净的空气法案,包括减少对石油和天然气工业允许甲烷排放的限制的决定。

额外的卫星计划在未来几年推出,以加强全球对石油和天然气行业逃逸排放的全球监测。根据环境国防基金(EDF),计划推出一个新的甲烷监控卫星in 2022, fugitive emissions from the oil and gas industry are up to60%更高than what the EPA has found.

Ethylene Oxide Emissions

State regulations of fugitive ethylene oxide emissions continue to expand as the public becomes more aware of the health risks associated with the chemical. For example, Illinois passed two新法律2019年调节环氧乙烷,使国家环氧乙烷排放标准标准最严格的国家。Similarly, Georgia is working with sterilization facilities to implementvoluntary reductions在环氧乙烷排放中。德克萨斯州最近在相反方向上呈环氧乙烷立法增加允许的极限from 1 part per billion (ppb) to 2.4 ppb in 2020.