什么是完美的城市电动自行车?

faraday side

We have shown so many e-bikes on TreeHugger lately. E-bikes can be wonderful things, great for older riders, people with really long commutes or who live in cities with lots of hills. But there are now so many different kinds, and there are a few basic questions that just never seem to get asked or answered. Mike previously asked e-bike expert Court Rye to tell useverything you need to knowto get started on an electric bike, but I think there are larger questions to be asked.

我不是这个专家,并希望进一步回复,以便第一原则。我还期待着读者评论更多的经验和知识。

发推骑自行车

推文重新自行车车道/屏幕捕获电动自行车经常被吹捧为一种让更多人乘坐自行车,可能出于汽车的一种方式。但我并不孤单地认为,这是最好的方法是建立良好,安全,分居的基础设施,人们可以在没有恐惧的情况下骑行。并且对于那种基础设施来说是安全的常规自行车和电子骑自行车的使用,那么他们必须一起玩得很好。我不确定我们一直显示的大多数电子自行车都可以做到这一点。

How fast should they be able to go?

Emmo Monster

自行车道允许EMMO怪物./promo图像

我们展示的许多电子自行车有500瓦电机,当平均通勤骑自行车的人走了一半时,有500瓦电机。在我居住的地方,这些怪物被认为是电子骑自行车,我一直害怕死亡而不是在自行车道20英里每小时去的电子摩托车上的几次;我知道他们是一个不同,特别令人讨厌的生物,而不是自行车,但是20英里/小时太快了。

在欧盟,可以被视为自行车的电动自行车的事实上标准是:

"Cycles with pedal assistance which are equipped with an auxiliary electric motor having a maximum continuous rated power of 0.25 kW, of which the output is progressively reduced and finally cut off as the vehicle reaches a speed of 25 km/h (16 mph) or if the cyclist stops pedaling."

与我们在Treehugger上看到的东西相比,这是一个微小的电机,速度限制较慢,注意它们是Pedelecs,当骑自行车的人停止时,电机正在提供助攻并停止,可能没有节气门选项。更多自行车,摩托车较少。

在哥本哈根化,Mikael笔记that e-bikes are involved in a disproportionate number of crashes and injuries. “11% of cyclist fatalities were caused by the fact that the cyclist was on an e-bike. Going too fast, losing control, motorists surprised by a speed faster than the average cyclist.” Perhaps we should be learning from this and slow them down a bit.

前毂,后毂或中心驱动器?

Coolpeds iBike

©.Coolpeds

A lot of the lower end e-bikes,like this Coolpeds iBike, are front hub drive. This makes sense; they are the easiest and cheapest to build. But they scare me; years ago I had a moped, a French Solex with front wheel drive. They were known death machines, with too much weight on the front wheel and a tendency to spin out on corners. Obviously a little hub motor in front is not the same thing, but they can still be problematic on corners and on wet pavement, especially if they are more powerful.

破碎的叉子

©Electricbike.com.

There is also the issue of the forces being applied to the front forks. According to Eric Hicks of Electricbike.com,

轮毂电机在自行车上放出了很多扭曲扭矩,而不是任何自行车设计。这是在前面运行集线器电机时的特殊问题,因为如果您的叉子捕获,它可能会产生潜在的致命后果(将面部植物思考到混凝土上)。有电动自行车骑手这样的骑行者已经死于这种方式,所以使用极限谨慎。电动机越强大危险越大。

This is particularly a problem with aluminum bike forks. Also, electric motors can occasionally seize up; if that happens at high speed on a front hub, you can go flying.

rear hub

Rear hub/ Lloyd Alter/cc by 2.0

后毂安装更复杂,因为链条和齿轮。但由于车轮的重量较大,它们具有更好的牵引力。它被认为更安全,并提供更平滑的骑行。但是,固定一个平坦更难,如果电池也在后部,则可能存在趋势。

mid drive

Lloyd Alter/ Bosch drive/cc by 2.0

Then there is the mid drive像这个博世单位一样,设计入自行车的框架,这变得越来越受欢迎。我喜欢它,因为自行车在它周围设计,重心的重心真的很低,很高兴乘坐。但是Boxybikes的劳伦克斯伯格告诉TreeHugger,它“有自己的问题,如更多的失败点,需要更多的用户技能,并在传动系中佩戴大量的磨损。”

前轮毂电机的共识似乎是基于“增大化现实”技术e the easiest and most economical, but keep them small.

固定或可拆卸电池?

Brad's ebike

Lloyd Alter / Brad的电子自行车/cc by 2.0

I love the look of the Faraday bike up top, or the Maxwell below, where the batteries are built right into the tubes of the bike. It is elegant and it looks like a bike. But it is not necessarily practical; In Seattle, Brad rides this bike to the Bullitt Center every day, and there are no outlets in the bike storage room to charge an e-bike. By having a detachable battery he can carry it up to his desk and charge it there. I suspect that this is a pretty common occurrence.

Pedelec or Throttle?

对公猪的控制

Lloyd Alter/cc by 2.0

在欧洲,没有太多选择;几乎每辆自行车都是一个小型人,自行车检测骑自行车者踩踏的扭矩或节奏。因为它是关于协助,而不是更换,踩踏板。但北美洲人似乎没有得到它,因为它没有立法,以摩托车的感觉为那些有节流的自行车。曾经使用过两种,我怀疑小型人更安全(少想考虑)并提供更多的锻炼,因为你必须踏板。制造商野猪电脂肪粉,如上所示,在我测试它被告知treehugger:

We chose to discontinue the throttle on the new model, though we did use one on our first model. Lloyd enjoyed the ride and thought it was intuitive. We agree and that was our goal. We gained some extra benefits from losing the throttle: a much cleaner cockpit that eliminates 3 wires - 2 for the brake lever power cutoff wires (required in most jurisdictions) and 1 for the throttle.

所以毕竟,什么是完美的城市电动自行车?

特洛伊在水牛城的自行车排名

Lloyd Alter/ Troy Rank with Maxwell Bike in Buffalo/cc by 2.0

最后,我认为我们应该从欧洲学习,在那里他们一直在做这一点。带有大型电动机和油门的大沉重的东西不再是一辆自行车。许多人可能会在电机上抱怨大约250瓦特(即使是觉得像自行车一样的美妙麦克斯韦尔,也有一个300瓦电机)。

But a European style e-bike is really a bike with a boost, an electric assist. This is what is really needed for people to travel farther, to handle steeper hills, to ride later in life, to play nicely in the bike lanes. They should be bikes, or they should be out in the road with the motorcycles.