吃猪肉有什么问题?

Pigs in pens in the organic pig farming at the Nuova Agricoltura (New Agriculture) farm on October 7, 2012
Giorgio Cosulich / Getty Images News / Getty Images

大约100万只猪每年在美国杀死粮食,但有些人因各种原因而选择不吃猪肉,包括对动物权利,猪福利的担忧,对环境的影响以及他们自己的健康。

猪和动物权利

信仰animal rights是一种信念,猪和其他诗派有权没有人体使用和剥削。育种,提高,杀害和吃猪违反了猪的自由权利,无论猪的治疗程度如何。虽然公众越来越意识到工厂农业和苛刻的人道地养殖和屠宰的肉,动物权利活动家认为没有人道屠杀这样的东西。从动物权利角度来看,工厂农业的唯一解决方案是veganism.

猪和动物福利

那些相信的人动物福利相信人类可以为自己的目的进行道德使用动物,只要动物在活力和屠宰期间的屠宰期间妥善处理。对于工厂养殖的猪来说,猪的疗法很少有争论。

Factory farming began in the 1960s when scientists realized that agriculture was going to have to become much more efficient to feed an exploding human population. Instead of small farms raising pigs outdoors in pastures, larger farms started raising them in extreme confinement, indoors. As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencyexplains:

There has also been a significant change in how and where hogs are produced in the U.S. over the past 50 years. Low consumer prices, and therefore low producer prices, have resulted in larger, more efficient operations, with many smaller farms no longer able to produce pigs profitably.

Pigs are cruelly abused on factory farms from the time they are little piglets. Piglets routinely have their teeth clipped, have their tails cut off and are castrated without anesthesia.

After weaning, the piglets are put in crowded pens with slotted floors for the manure to fall through, into a manure pit. In these pens, they each typically haveonly three square feetof room. When they become too large, they are moved to new pens, also with slotted floors, where they have八平方英尺空间。由于拥挤,疾病的传播是一个恒定的问题,并且整个动物的动物被给予抗生素作为预防措施。当他们达到250-275磅的屠宰体重时,大部分大约五到六个月的时候,大多数都被派去屠宰,而少数女性成为繁殖母猪。

After being impregnated, sometimes by a boar and sometimes artificially, breeding sows are then confined in gestation stalls that are so tiny, the animals cannot even turn around. Gestation stalls are considered so cruel, they have been banned in several countries and in several U.S. states, but are still legal in most states.

当育种母猪的生育能力下降时,通常在五六次窝里后,她被派去屠宰。

这些做法不仅是常规但合法的。没有联邦法律管辖养殖动物的养育。联邦人道屠宰行为仅适用于联邦的屠宰实践动物福利行为明确地豁免农场动物。国家动物福利法规豁免动物为行业常规的食物和/或做法提出。

而有些人呼吁更人道的待遇of the pigs, allowing the pigs to roam on pastures would make animal agriculture even more inefficient, requiring甚至更多的资源.

猪肉和环境

Animal agriculture is inefficient because it takes so much more resources to grow crops to feed to pigs than it would be to grow crops to feed to people directly. It takes aboutsix pounds of feedto produce a pound of pork. Growing those extra crops requires additional land, fuel, water, fertilizer, pesticides, seeds, labor, and other resources. The extra agriculture will also create more pollution, such as pesticide and fertilizer runoff and fuel emissions, not to mention the methane that the animals produce.

海上牧羊犬保守社会船长呼叫国内猪,“世界上最大的水生掠食者”,因为他们比世界各地的所有鲨鱼吃得更多。“我们只是把鱼从海上拉到海洋中,将其转换成鱼粉,以养殖牲畜,主要是猪。”

猪也产生了很多粪便,而工厂农场已经提出来了详细制作系统for storing solid or liquid manure until it can be used as fertilizer. However, these manure pits or lagoons are environmental disasters waiting to happen. Methane sometimes becomes trapped under a layer of foam in a manure pit and explodes. Manure pits can also overflow or can become flooded, polluting the groundwater, streams, lakes and drinking water.

Pork and Human Health

The benefits of a low-fat, whole foods vegan diet已被证明, including lower incidences of heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. The American Dietetic Association支持素食饮食:

它是美国饮食协会的职位,这些素食饮食,包括总素食主义者或素食饮食,具有健康,营养充足,并且可以在预防和治疗某些疾病方面提供健康益处。

因为猪现在被养育是瘦的,所以猪肉并不像曾经是不健康的,而不是健康食品。因为它们在饱和脂肪中很高,所以哈佛大学公共卫生学院recommends avoiding red meats, including beef, pork, and lamb.

Aside from the risks of eating pork, supporting the pork industry means supporting an industry that endangers public health and not just the health of people who choose to eat pork. Because the pigs are constantly given antibioticsas a preventive measure,行业促进了崛起和传播抗生素抗性菌株of bacteria. Similarly, the pork industry spreads swine flu, or H1N1, because the virus mutates so quickly and spreads quickly among closely-confined animals as well as to farmworkers. The environmental issues also mean that pig farms endanger their neighbors' health with manure and disease.