The Argument for Animal Rights

这些权利如何与人权不同?

禽流感增加了对养鸡生命的威胁
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Advocacy groups and humanitarians alike have long argued for the rights of animals around the world, fighting for their right as sentient creatures to a life free of torture and suffering. Some advocate for not using animals as food, clothing or other goods and others such asvegans甚至拒绝使用动物副产品。

In the United States, people often say that they love animals and that they consider their pets to be part of the family, but many draw the line atanimal rights. Isn't it enough that we treat them humanely? Why should animals have rights? What rights should animals have? How are those rights different from human rights?

事实是,自美国农业部发布1966年以来动物福利行为, even animals used in commercial farming are entitled to a certain base-level of treatment. But that differs from the wants of animal rights activist groups likePeople for the Ethical Treatment of Animals(PETA) or the more extreme British direct-action group known as the Animal Liberation Front.

动物权利与动物福利

动物福利视图,即可与动物权利视图分开,人类可以使用和利用动物,只要动物被人类对待并且使用不那么轻浮。对于动物权利活动家来说,这个观点的主要问题是人类没有权利使用和利用动物,无论动物的治疗如何。购买,销售,繁殖,限制和killing animals无论他们如何对待他们如何对待动物的权利,侵犯了动物的权利。

Furthermore, the idea of treating animals humanely is vague and means something different to everyone. For instance, an egg farmer may think that there is nothing wrong with killing male chicks by grinding them up alive to cut feeding costs versus yield. Also, "cage-free eggs" are not as humane as the industry would have us believe. In fact, a cage-free egg operation buys their eggs from the same hatcheries that工厂化农场购买,那些孵化场也杀死了雄性小鸡。

The idea of "humane" meat also seems absurd to animal rights activists, since the animals must be killed to obtain the meat. And for farms to be profitable, those animals are killed as soon as they reach slaughter weight, which is still very young.

动物为什么要有权利?

动物权利是基于动物所谓的观点,并且这种物种主义是错误的,前者是科学支持的,这是2012年宣布的国际神经科学家专家组,非人类动物有意识 - 后者仍然在热烈竞争中人道主义。

Animal rights activists argue that because animals are sentient, the only reason humans are treated differently is speciesism, which is an arbitrary distinction based on the incorrect belief that humans are the only species deserving of moral consideration. Speciesism, like racism and sexism, is wrong because of animals popular in the meat industry like cows, pigs and chickens suffer when confined, tortured and slaughtered and there is no reason to morally distinguish between humans and non-human animals.

人们有权利的原因是防止不公正的痛苦。同样,动物权利活动者希望动物有权的原因是防止他们不公正地遭受痛苦。我们有animal cruelty statutesto prevent some animal suffering, although U.S law prohibits only the most egregious, extraordinary animal cruelty. These laws do nothing to prevent most forms of animal exploitation, including fur,veal, andfoie gras.

Human Rights Versus Animal Rights

没有人要求动物与人类具有与人类相同的权利,但在动物权利活动家的理想世界中,动物有权摆脱人类使用和剥削 - a素食主义者世界where animals are no longer used for food, clothing or entertainment.

虽然有一些辩论至关重要basic human rights are, most people recognize that other humans have certain fundamental rights. According to the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights, human rights include "the right to life, liberty and security of person..an adequate standard of living...to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution...to own property...freedom of opinion and expression...to education...of thought, conscience and religion; and the right to freedom from torture and degrading treatment, among others."

这些权利与动物权利不同,因为我们有能力确保其他人类能够获得食物和住房,没有酷刑,可以表达自己。另一方面,它不是我们的力量,以确保每只鸟都有巢,或者每只松鼠都有橡子。动物权利的一部分是让动物单独养活他们的生活,而不是侵犯他们的世界或他们的生活。